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Uzbeq, Ozbek Orientation Identification. Uzbeks likely take their name from a khan. A leader of the Golden Horde in the fourteenth century was named Uzbek, though he did not rule over the people who would share his name.
Modern Uzbeks hail not only from the Turkic-Mongol nomads who first claimed the name, but also from other Turkic and Persian peoples living inside the country's borders. The Soviets, in an effort to divide the Turkic people into more easily governable subdivisions, labeled Turks, Tajiks, Sarts, Qipchaqs, Khojas, and others as Uzbek, doubling the size of the ethnicity to four million in Today the government is strengthening the Uzbek group identity, to prevent the splintering seen in other multiethnic states.
Some people have assimilated with seemingly little concern. Many Tajiks consider themselves Uzbek, though they retain the Tajik language; this may be because they have long shared an urban lifestyle, which was more of a bond than ethnic labels.
Others have been more resistant to Uzbekization. Many Qipchaqs eschew intermarriage, live a nomadic lifestyle, and identify more closely with the Kyrgyz who live across the border from them.
The Khojas also avoid intermarriage, and despite speaking several languages, have retained a sense of unity. The Karakalpaks, who live in the desert south of the Aral Sea, have a separate language and tradition more akin to Kazakh than Uzbek.
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Under the Soviet Union, theirs was a separate republic, and it remains autonomous. Uzbekistan'ssquare milessquare kilometersan area slightly larger than California, begin in the Karakum Black Sand and Kyzlkum Red Sand deserts of Karakalpakistan. The arid land of this autonomous republic supports a nomadic lifestyle.
Recently, the drying up of the Aral Sea has devastated the environment, causing more than 30 percent of the area's population to leave, from villages in the early s and then from cities. This will continue; the area was hit by a devastating drought in the summer of Population increases to the east, centered around fertile oases and the valleys of the Amu-Darya River, once known as the Oxus, and the Zeravshan River, which supports the ancient city-states of Bokhara and Samarkand.
The Ferghana Valley in the east is the heart of Islam in Uzbekistan. Here, where the country is squeezed between Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, the mountainous terrain supports a continuing nomadic lifestyle, and in recent years has provided a venue for fundamentalist guerrillas.
Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Afghanistan also border the country. In the Russian colonial government moved the capital from Bokhara to Tashkent. The current population of Uzbekistan is Seventy-five to 80 percent are Uzbek, though many of these were originally from other ethnic groups.
Russians and Tajiks are each 5 percent, Karakalpaks 2 percent, and other nationalities the remainder. From tofive hundred thousand more people emigrated than immigrated; most of the emigrants were educated. Of the more than one million people who have left, essentially all were non-Uzbek.
Cities like Andijan and Ferghana, whose populations had been only half Uzbek, are now virtually entirely Uzbek. In, Germans lived in Uzbekistan; 95 Uzbekistan percent have left.
In, Jews lived in Uzbekistan; 80 percent have left. Uzbek is the language of about twenty million Uzbeks living in Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan. The language is Turkic and abounds with dialects, including Qarlug which served as the literary language for much of Uzbek historyKipchak, Lokhay, Oghuz, Qurama, and Sart, some of which come from other languages.
Uzbek emerged as a distinct language in the fifteenth century. It is so close to modern Uyghur that speakers of each language can converse easily. Prior to Russian colonization it would often have been hard to say where one Turkic language started and another ended.
But through prescribed borders, shifts in dialect coalesced into distinct languages. The Soviets replaced its Arabic script briefly with a Roman script and then with Cyrillic.
Since independence there has been a shift back to Roman script, as well as a push to eliminate words borrowed from Russian. About 14 percent of the population—mostly non-Uzbek—speak Russian as their first language; 5 percent speak Tajik. Most Russians do not speak Uzbek. Under the Soviet Union, Russian was taught as the Soviet lingua franca, but Uzbek was supported as the indigenous language of the republic, ironically resulting in the deterioration of other native languages and dialects.Hi Liz, Loads of love from India.
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