Related feed s Description Slaughterhouse wastes and dead animals are used to prepare meat and bone meal. Slaughterhouse wastes consist of portions of animals that are not suitable for human consumption, such as carcass trimmings, condemned carcasses, condemned livers, inedible offal lungs and bones.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. Phosphorus P is an essential element, and the majority of animal feed phosphate is derived from phosphate rock that is a non-renewable resource.
Current global P reserves may be depleted in 50— years. This poses the challenge of securing future P supply for the global animal feed industries.
Currently, nutritionists formulate diets with substantial safety margins to guarantee that animals do not become P deficient. Excessive dietary P concentrations increase, not only the cost of diets, but also P excretion and pollution of the environment. We contend that understanding P bioavailability is central to the sustainable use of this mineral in animal agriculture.
Achievement of this goal will assist endeavours to sustain the global supply of phosphorus. Introduction Phosphorus P is an essential element for all forms of life, from single to multicellular organisms.
It is required for normal muscle growth and egg formation, is an important component of nucleic acids, the genetic code, and phospholipids, and is also a co-factor of many enzyme systems. Phosphorus plays a vital role in maintaining osmotic and acid-base balance, energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism and protein synthesis.
These diets usually require supplementation with inorganic P, because of the low concentrations, and low availability of total P in cereal feed ingredients. Meat and bone meal has relatively high bioavailable P content but is banned from use in animal feed in European countries.
This policy increases the demand for inorganic feed phosphates [ 2 ]. The majority of feed phosphate is derived from phosphate rock that is a non-renewable resource and becoming increasingly scarce and expensive [ 3 ].
Current global P reserves may be depleted in 50— years [ 45 ]. This poses the challenge of securing future P supply for the international and national animal feed industries.
There is limited information on biologically determined P values in feed ingredients for poultry [ 8910 ]. Therefore, nutritionists have to formulate diets with substantial safety margins to guarantee that birds do not become P deficient.
Greater dietary P concentrations increase the cost of poultry production, and P excretion into manure. Excessive amounts of P in manure contribute to the pollution of lakes, streams and wetlands leading to surface water eutrophication.
Eutrophication of fresh water globally is accelerated by P accumulation [ 1112 ]. All these concerns have attracted much global attention and stimulated the re-examination of the use of inorganic P in animal diets.
This issue is pertinent to all non-ruminant animals that require dietary P supplementation, especially poultry broilers, layers and breeders and pigs.
In this review, the focus is on meat chickens or broilers as much of the P used in animal nutrition is in poultry diets. In an effort to optimise P use by poultry, the P requirements of the modern broiler have been re-examined [ 131415161718 ] and defining P bioavailability in feedstuffs has commenced [ 219 ].
Mention of bioavailability, which encompasses digestion, absorption and utilisation of P, evokes much debate and is the thrust of this review.
We contend that bioavailability is central to the sustainable use of P in animal agriculture. A thorough understanding of P bioavailability will permit the development of strategies to enhance efficiency of P utilisation, reduce wastage of P resources and reduce environmental pollution by P.
Phosphorus Metabolism It is important when discussing phosphorus requirements and bioavailability to appreciate the metabolism of phosphorus Figure 1 and to remember the close association that phosphorus homeostasis has with the metabolism of two other nutrients; calcium Ca and vitamin D.
The major features of these interactions are briefly reviewed here and the interested reader is referred to detailed reviews on the topic [ 2021 ]. The major store of Ca and P is the skeleton where the cationic and anionic forms, respectively, of these minerals connect to form hydroxyapatite, which confers rigidity on the bone matrix [ 2 ].
Bone is continually turned over and to ensure that the biological demands for both Ca and P are met, metabolism of these essential minerals is tightly coordinated. Utilisation of Ca and P is modulated by the relative amounts of each in the diet [ 2 ].
However, the quantities of each available for their respective metabolic functions is determined by efficiencies of intestinal absorption, glomerular filtration, renal tubular reabsorption, rates of transfer from blood to bone, and intestinal endogenous losses [ 20 ].
The efficiencies of these processes in the different tissues are modulated by several hormones, chiefly parathyroid hormone PTH and the hormonal form of vitamin D3 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol; calcitriol [ 2021 ].
The control of P metabolism differs from that of Ca, with less control in the gut and greater control in the kidneys.
Moreover, there is increasing evidence that dietary protein and carbohydrate affect intestinal metabolism of Ca and P [ 21 ].
Together, the factors that determine intestinal absorption and kidney excretion along with endocrine regulation of absorption and reabsorption in the kidneys facilitate P homeostasis. Phosphorus Requirements Research on the P requirement of broilers has been the subject of numerous investigations for many decades; however, the minimum requirement for this nutrient has still not been established with any certainty.
The published results are variable as different breeds of birds, age of birds, feed ingredients with or without phytase supplementationCa and P sources were used in different studies. In some instances, the differences observed may reflect true differences in requirements, not merely variation resulting from experimental conditions.
To further complicate interpretation of results, different criteria, including body weight gain, feed conversion ratio FCRtibia breaking strength, tibia ash, or toe ash contents have been used to assess responses to P Table 1.Posted on Jul 12 I was still using the Organic Choice bone meal I had to prepare flower beds Meat And Bone Meal In Feedstuffs Environmental Sciences Essay.
the animal feed sector want the use of meat and bone meal as Also human The aim of this study was to develop (1). major animal-derived by-products used in swine diets are meat meal, meat and bone meal, fish meal, dried blood products (blood meal, spray-dried plasma, and spray- a knowledge of the feedstuffs that can be used in pig feed, and The majority of these animal-derived feedstuffs are by-products of the meat packing/rendering industry.
. A CONSULTATIVE panel has recommended that the European Commission step up research into its restrictions on the use of meat and bone meal (MBM) in feed rations for hogs and poultry.
The Plant sale.(biofuels BUZZ)(US BioEnergy Corp.)(Millennium Ethanol LLC)(Brief article). Estimation of the metabolizable energy content of meat and bone meal for swine Key words: energy content, meat and bone meal, prediction equation, proximate fraction, swine Estimation of the metabolizable energy content of meat and bone meal .
Meat and bone meal has relatively high bioavailable P content but is banned from use in animal feed in European countries. This policy increases the demand for inorganic feed phosphates [ 2 ]. The majority of feed phosphate is derived from phosphate rock that is a non-renewable resource and becoming increasingly scarce and expensive [ 3 ].
Restrictions on trade in meat and bone meal. Sterilization of meat and bone meal. Restricted use of meat and bone meal. Minimizing exposure of the human population. Minimizing the exposure of other species (Moore, ) A great deal of concern, much of it avoidable, has been expressed over the possible public health consequences of BSE.