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French Social Theorist and Mathematician. Celebrated in his own time for scientific and mathematical achievements and his role in the French Revolution, Condorcet is now known mainly for his theory of historical progress.
An uncle arranged for the shy, awkward boy to receive a Jesuit education in Reims. From there he went on to the College de Navarre at the University of Paris, where he displayed genius in science and mathematics. In the tumultuous s, Condorcet turned his energies increasingly toward analysis of and engagement in politics.
Using probability theory, he devised complex and sophisticated schemes for voting. A lover of liberty, Condorcet abhorred both tyrants and clerics, and championed many progressive causes: Admiration for the events that transpired across the Atlantic led him to write The Influence of the American Revolution on Europededicated to Lafayette, as well as a eulogy for Franklin, Benjamin.
In he married his beloved Sophie de Grouchy, who later bore him a daughter. He held high office under both the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention and drafted, in addition to numerous pamphlets, the never-used constitution of February, Constitutional disputes with the radical Jacobins led to an order for his arrest at the height of the Terror.
For eight months, he hid in the garret of his friend, Mme. Eventually, concern about jeopardizing his benefactor overrode fears for his own safety. He died in jail the next day, presumably a suicide. Simon, and Marx, Condorcet argued that social change is primarily driven by scientific, technological, and economic developments.
He further held that, despite many reversals and considerable suffering, history is basically progressive; over the course of the nine epochs that have transpired to date, one can discern substantial movement toward freedom, justice, and equality. Condorcet believed that humans are uniquely malleable, and that nature and human nature in no way obstruct the formation of an ideal community.
The only significant obstacles to our perfection are societal: Once these evils have been eliminated, people can look forward to a tenth and final epoch characterized by abundance, peace, and unlimited intellectual advance.
Building on the theory of Turgot, Condorcet saw history, in its general outlines, as conforming increasingly to the dictates of reason. On this basis, he justified Western intellectual dominance, but not political hegemony or economic exploitation; more than most of his contemporaries, he empathized with the plight of subjected peoples.
He imagined that rational enlightenment, which was currently the province of a Western elite, would spread to all corners of the earth, improving the human condition everywhere. Like many philosophes, Condorcet admired classical antiquity for its achievements in thought and culture, while deploring the effects of Christianity.
He saw the Christian period as an unmitigated disaster, since it virtually obliterated classical advances in learning, only to persecute intellectuals and introduce crude superstitions.
Fortunately, although it may have delayed the onset of Enlightenment, Christianity could not halt it. Despite the recent setback triggered by the Reformation, the resurgence of scientific inquiry, coupled with the spread of education and learning, promised a bright future for humanity.
While agreeing that history is a record of prejudice and misery, he believed that understanding its laws could enhance our ability to improve the human condition. In this respect, Condorcet provides a bridge to a central preoccupation of nineteenth century social thought. From Natural Philosophy to Social Mathematics, Salwyn Schapiro, Condorcet and the Rise of Liberalism, Be sure to copy Donald Wuerl, Blaise Cupich, Joseph Tobin, and Robert McElroy.
Their addresses are included below. Finally, it is recommended that you inform the Nuncio that you will pray for him, the Pope, bishops, priests, and the Church, as well as the victims.
Aug 18, · Address a letter to a secular priest. On the envelope write: The Reverend Father first name, middle initial, last name or The Reverend first name, middle initial, last name. Don’t forget the word The. Example: "The Reverend Father John W. Butler." The salutation should be Dear Father.
To be even more polite, refer to a priest as His Reverence%(33). Rev. Father Richard Cipolla Father Richard Gennaro Cipolla Pastor of St.
Mary's, – I write this column as the last one before I retire as Pastor of St. Mary’s. As I said to Bishop Caggiano at Confirmation last Sunday, I have been privileged and blessed to be the Pastor of St. Mary’s for these past three years and two months.
Reverend Father: Rev. Fr. (or "R.P." for Reverendus Pater) Other Stand when he enters the room and remain standing until he invites you to sit. Jun 29, · I just heard today about the Nanteos Cup possibly being the Holy Grail, and about the prayer clothes.
I have been able to check the letter tracking option and it details as the letter is being held and the addressee is being contacted to pick up. If I write to Father Peter will he be able to send a cloth? Reply ph-vs.com: Bishop † Seán † Manchester. Assignment Record– Rev. John Patrick Feeney.
Summary of Case: A Green Bay diocesan priest, Feeney has been accused of sexually abusing many children, male and female, throughout his ph-vs.com least 12 have come forward.
He was moved among 18 parishes in the diocese within 30 years.